Posted in Science and Technology

Essay Content : Leave science to the scientists. (AJC Prelim 2012)

Read the links for further supporting details



Posted in Science and Technology, The State / The Government

General Paper Essay Outline : Should governments regulate scientific research / medical science ?

Disclaimer : Here are just some ideas. This outline is not meant to be taken as the only, or the final answer, to this question.

warning handle with care

Some really good and succinct articles :

Read this piece only if you have a whole lot of time :

Interpretations :

What are the roles of the government ? – progress (economic growth, social stability); security

How can a government regulate ? – laws, incentives, rules / guidelines, checks & monitoring

What parts of scientific research can be regulated ?

– the product (What to research : harmful or beneficial)

– the process (How the research is carried out ; the extent of the research : any harm ? exploitation ? violation of moral boundaries ?)

Stand : Governments should regulate scientific research so that the research is beneficial to the masses, but governments should not control to the extent of hindering the progress of the research.


  1. Utilitarian principle – greatest good for the majority + prevent harm to the public, end-users
  2. Set moral standards for society >>> Social stability – regulate what could be controversial and divisive
  3. Critical, sensitive research (e.g. defence) needs to be regulated, (groups of) scientists unauthorised by the state should be prohibited
  4. Economic growth  –  determine which research is potentially lucrative
  5. Prevent exploitation of end-users, test subjects, the environment etc

But do not regulate to the point of retarding scientific development. Here are some arguments against regulation :

  1. If other parties do better, then reduce regulation – Other may have better resources than the government + To increase competition amongst them
  2. Regulation prevents innovation and restricts the scientists from potential discoveries
  3. Government could implement regulatory policies based on simplistic or even alarmist views
Posted in Modern Society, Science and Technology

GP ESSAY OUTLINE : Man is technologically advanced, but morally backward. Discuss

Man : technologically advanced but morally backward

(1) Tech is used for self-preservation  widen the gulf between the haves and the have-nots

(2) Tech is used for self-gratification  hedonism, materialism, consumerism

(3) Tech is used even when it threatens the sanctity of life  euthanasia, abortion

(4) Tech is used to commit crimes and acts of aggression  hacking, piracy, online intimidation, voyeurism… biological/chemical/nuclear warfare

Man : technologically advanced, but not morally backward

(A) Tech is used to help the disadvantaged – poor, weak etc.

(B) Tech is used to save the planet

(C) Tech is used to unite and build understanding among people  facilitate peace-making  of course, there will be hatemongers, but with education, people can be more responsible

(D) Tech promotes democracy, openness  more discourse, debate to improve the country or society; provides more checks and balances for the government to curb corruption, abuse of power

Sample Introduction:
The past century has witnessed unprecedented discoveries and inventions that have transformed society. Air travel, space travel, genetic science, nanotechnology and the internet, among others, have made Man a technological giant. Skeptics of technology point out that despite astounding progress, Man is uncivilized, without a moral compass. There is, unfortunately, significant proof to support this criticism. However, there is also sufficient evidence that denounce this as an overgeneralisation that does not apply to all of mankind. Therefore, being technologically advanced does not always mean that Man is morally backward.

Sample Conclusion:
Man is a tech giant, but he does show that he can degenerate to be a moral pygmy. However, Man is making effort to find his sense of civility and humanity. Thus, all hope is not yet lost.